Friday, December 27, 2019
Virginia HendersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Needs Theory and Oncology Virginia Henderson stated Ã¢â¬Å"the nurse is temporarily the consciousness of the unconscious, . . . the leg of the amputee, the eyes of the newly blindÃ¢â¬ (Henderson, 2008, p.26). By saying this, Henderson was explaining how the nurse temporarily fulfills the functions of the patient when the patient is not capable of fulfilling these functions themselves. HendersonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory was comprised of fourteen activities that she thought the nurse was to help the patients perform. This theory has been applied to various types of nursing practice, such as childbirth education and organ donation after brain death. It can also be applied to the practice of a student nurse and an oncology nurse. Various health care professionals had influenced Henderson before she developed her concept. Since the original creation of her concept, Henderson reflected on differences that would be present in modern day (Henderson, 1991). Both Henderso nÃ¢â¬â¢s original and more recent insights are applicable for numerous areas of practice. Major Elements of HendersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory Virginia Henderson (1966) defined the function of the nurse as Ã¢â¬Å"assist[ing] the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge. And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible (Henderson, 2008, p.26).Show MoreRelatedThe Ethical Dilemma Of Grand Nursing Theories1577 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGrand nursing theories are global in their application to nursing and have been instrumental in developing the science of nursing (McEwen Wills, 2014). Grand nursing theories are abstract and can be applied to many different situations. Because grand nursing theories are broad they can be applied to ethical dilemmas that occur in nursing practice. Ethical dilemmas are a part of the healthcare field and it is important to know how to navigate through the murky waters that dilemmas can present. Nursin gRead MoreA Brief Note On Virginia And Dorothea Orem Essay1814 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagespatients independence because if the patient does not remain active or able to bathe themselves or feed themselves, the muscles lose memory and becomes more and more difficult for the patient to care for themselves. My philosophy is closely related to Virginia Henderson and Dorothea Orem because they promote self-care and patient independence. The most important roles for providing care are person, environment, nursing, and health. I define person as someone who is seeking care or family seeking care ofRead MoreProfessional Presence and Influence2709 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pageshealing: Comparison between two models of Eras of healing and healing. According to Dr. L Dossey a Physician and a medical theorist who developed the healing and healing theory, he began by combining a scientific, mind and spiritual principle use of ones seeking to be a state of wellbeing. His theory is developed by the examination of the changes that occurred in medicine in the later part of the year 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s and into the 21St century. He divided the Eras into three categories.
Posted by Michael Hipple at 7:33 PM
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Many positive things happened during, and as a result of, the British colonization of India. When the East India Company took control of India in 1612, they began modernizing, westernizing, and industrializing India. This westernization included giving women more rights, an attempt to eliminate the caste system and the loss of many of the more backward Hindu religious beliefs such as the domination of women by men and denying an entire class of people any rights. British occupation also did things long term for India. The modern technology and western customs allowed India to become a burgeoning regional superpower. The colonization of India was helpful for India because it went a long way to modernize India, westernized India inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Some of these students, such as the political activist Mahatma Gandhi, were able to travel England to study at some of the most prestigious universities in the world. It is a fact that to be a successful, innovative country you need an educated population base; the building of these British schools facilitated this. The westernization of India was beneficial to India. The most influential thing was the introduction of Enlightenment ideas and a western-style democracies; which has proven to be one of the most successful models in history. This made them one of the most effective colonies and post colonial countries. One of the best examples of western political thought surfacing in India was the formation of the Indian National Congress. The Indian National Congress was made up of western-educated Indians, who had been taught the ways of the enlightenment. They initially advocated for self-rule within the British Empire. After the Amritsar Massacre in which the soldiers hired by the East India Trading Company fired on unarmed protesters, they began protesting for complete independence from Britain. The system they wanted to install to run India was a Western-Style democracy/republic. The Indian National Co ngress is still in existence today and played an instrumental role in setting up IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s current democratic government. Another good policy that was spawned out of westernization was the idea thatShow MoreRelatedWestern Colonization Essay1061 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesever been colonized in the world. India is one of these countries that affected by the Britain very much. From 16th century to 20th century, British colonialist began the aggression and expanding. England had ever governed many countries by using force methods . Absolutely, India became the target because of its widely nature products and lack of military power. The ancient country was suffering the colonial bearing. As English invade , many parts of India were changed such as culture, traditionsRead MoreThe Effects Of British Colonization On The World Essay1140 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Effects of British Colonization The 1800s were a time of change in the world. Industry and imperialism became the main focus of many nations, no nation more than Great Britain. Britain already being a world power, lead the charge of industry throughout the world, using their far superior technology at the time to imperialize and colonize almost any nation that would benefit them. Britain was the workshop of the world and required an abundance of raw materials to fuel their industry. After losingRead MoreA White Man s Burden, And Achebe s Things Fall Apart1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn history, colonization was a truly popular tradition practiced by great and powerful empires in order to extract and retrieve all materials necessary to support their homeland. However, in order to achieve such sense of commerce and well-being, those colonists who had the power, had to colonize weaker and far less advanced societies. Great powers such as Britain and France would then travel to these societies and implement their rule i n order to gain prosperity. Some, those who benefited from colonizationRead MoreWorld Issues : Personal Opinion1572 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWorld Issues: Personal Opinion Essay- The Positives of Colonialism: Colonialism has been portrayed as leaving negative impacts on countries, however many do not take into consideration the positives effects of colonization. The people of Africa established a mainstream religion to follow (Christianity), including new laws and a new political system. Countries bonded with one another and signed agreements to prevent conflict between countries. It has benefited many people that were illiterate; schoolsRead MoreThe Age of Imperialism Essay1573 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbeen leading the colonial power amongst the Europeans. France had been second in command. Portugal, Spain and Holland received few colonies. Germany and Italy were last to join because they unified themselves in the 1860s. Africa had delayed its colonization because of its many diseases and geography. Africa became colonized in the 19th Century. Europeans were able to colonize Africa because of the many advantages they had over them. Firstly, the Maxim gun had been acquired. This was the first automaticRead MoreNegative Effects Of Colonization Essay1217 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthere have been many instances of colonization. Colonization is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"The action or process of settling among and establishing control over the indigenous people of an areaÃ¢â¬ (Oxford Dictionary Online). In many cases, this has been extremely detrimental to cultures of other civilizations. Culture is Ã¢â¬Å"the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social groupÃ¢â¬ (Merriam Webster Online). The overly ambitious use of colonization has not only stripped people ofRead MoreThe Impact Of British Imperialism On Modern India1244 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction The purpose of this historical inquiry is to analyze to what extent did British Imperialism have an effect on shaping modern India? The main source that will be discussed in this paper is the seventh book of the Spotlight on History Series called The British Raj, which explains the reasons behind the conflicts between the British Empire and Indian nationalism and assess the achievements of a memorable relationship. The whole notion behind imperialismRead MoreThe Expansion Of The European Empire1712 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmain contributor to this division occurred over 150 years ago with Britain and its colonization of India. Colonization has had a prodigious influence on developing the modernity of a country. In addition to the centralized political system gained from Britain, India gained numerous modern technologies and ideologies that helped them progress as a nation. These progressions, however, have had some negative effects on India that are associated with the underdevelopment of the country as a whole. BritainRead MoreForeign Influence and Its Positive and Negative Impacts1285 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Foreign influence. Colonization. Imperialism. All of these arguably had a very positive impact on the world advancing it technologically. However, foreign influence also causes conflicts. For example, Britain split up the Hindus and Muslims in India which led to years of fighting and hatred. The majority of people believe that there isnt a specific cause for genocide. However Ã¢â¬â as shown by the Sudanese and Rwandan GenocidesÃ¢â¬âforeign influence, and the absence of it, plays a big role in causingRead MoreThe British Colonization Of India935 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIndia was administrative regulated by British for practically a century, with independence from Britain not expanded up until comparatively lately in August 1947. British colonization had an amount of momentous influences on the district, and many of which had permanent legacies on the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economic and social positions. Though some of these effects were helpful and positive for India, many rooted in British imperial benefits being prioritized over domestic benefits, which led to an uneven pattern
Posted by Michael Hipple at 3:22 PM
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Dyspepsia literature is when the world is focused on making the perfect world. They often have a small percent of people making the perfect race or often known as the favorites, and the rest of the population, often a majority of people, are left to survive by themselves, on the bottom of the barrel. In The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins and the movie Cataract are both dyspepsia media. In tough times both the rich and poor come together to fight through what the government set out to say wouldnt happen, in both medias. In both dyspepsia medias Hunger Games and Cataract want a perfect world. They are both similar; both types of governments want to deluded the non-perfect race. People from Panama and Cataract are nice, for example China In Hunger Games and The Doctor In Cataract; therefore, The Hunger Games and Cataract are similar dyspepsia medias. In both the Hunger Games and Cataract In tough times the rich and poor come together to help each other. We will write a custom essay sample on Compare and contrast hunger games or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In the Hunger Games Catkins made friends with China from the capitol. This happened because she seen the shape that Catkins was in when she got to the training center. I think China really did care and didnt want to just boost Satanists confidence. I think Catkins seen how rough it was in district twelve and thought she could help Catkins. China over passed the fact that she was from the capitol, to go out of her way to make sure Catkins was to the best of her health entering the games. I think China helped to comfort Catkins by doing GIRL things to her by doing her hair hanging out, to help Catkins take her mind off dying or back home. This was similar to Cataract because when Vince had the lifelong goal to get to space. The Doctor help him pass him fake I. D. Then Jerome who got injured out of the country let him take his I. D. Help him get there even though his heart wasnt capable of going to Cataract. Therefore, I Think the Doctor and Jerome seen that Vince could go but had to get passed the government who wouldnt let the non-perfect people through. This is why in tough times know matter where you come from, rich or poor, people come together to help one another. In The Hunger Games and Cataract the governments are to make the perfect world. The governments are out to discussed people. The government in Cataract doesnt treat everyone equal. If you have any little disease or personality that differs you from the est. of the population. Like Jerome he has a heart defect he has to change his Identity to accomplish, his lifelong goal, of going to space. The Doctor help Jerome get through the government to get into space. The Doctor does this because; he himself has a child with a defect as well. In the Hunger Games the government chooses two tributes to compete in the Hunger Games. They pick two from every district and never any from the capitol. The people In the capitol are rich. And some districts are better off than other districts. Like for example district 12 Is very poor and they starve o supply the capitol with coal. And the capitol that are rich, fed, heat, and are healthy do nothing. The people In the capitol are usually born perfect and get to live there. But the people In the districts get treated like dirt by the capitol. They fend for their life with no food and little heat and electrically. Therefore this Is why both dyspepsia literatures are very similar. Another salutary Is that In both dyspepsia stories people in the capitol or Cataract come together with people in poorer areas. Though they are different they can still accomplish what the perfect people can. Like in Cataract when Vince gets help from the guy that got injured but no one knows where he went so Jerome helped Vince to take his identity. He did this because he seen that Vince was Just as intelligent as him. And he was already over the limit of when he was going to die. After he got his identity changed from a defect to a perfect person he got Jerome DNA. Then he went through to Cataract and a The Doctor let him through. The doctor let Vince whom was now disguised as Jerome through. He did this because the Doctor also had a child with a heart defect. And the Doctor wanted to use this as an example that you can do anything in life even if you are different. In the Hunger Games it is the same too when China from the capitol makes friends with Catkins and gives her a sense of comfort. China does this to take Satanists mind of the games and from being away from home. China comforts Catkins by doing girl things like doing her hair and hanging out. This is another example in how the understanding nice people come together even though people are different. This is another example on how the people come together when they see even if they are different, they can do what anyone can.
Posted by Michael Hipple at 12:04 PM
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Into The Millennium Into The Millennium For most people family is one of the most important parts of life. For they are the people who raised you and taught you things needed in life. For most of us we have a connection with are family that is unparallel in life, which is the reason for are undying love. At times though there is a point at which we take are family for granted like they will always be around. Parents might do things that are not agreed upon by the children, yet the parent thinks it is in the childs best interest. Sometimes it might not even be the best thing to do in that situation, yet parents have a true desire to protect their children from the dangers of the world. On the other hand, children do not always listen to the advice their parents give them and can get themselves into a lot of trouble. Anyway you look at it, most of the time we do not realize what we have until it is not longer with us. Many times we do take our family for granted and when one passes away there are many things we wish we could have said or done to show them are love. The play Into The Woods, by Stephen Sondheim and James Lapine is a direct example of how families treat each other. There is conflict ranging from hating sisters, to protective mothers and a disagreeing husband and wife. In the end lives are lost, family are in pain and those left realize that they need to treat their family better and hold on to the loved ones that they have. Families do encounter many difficult choices together, but they also must solve the problems together, and keep peace within the family, because bad choice will be regretted when those loved ones are not around longer. From my interpretation of the plays theme I have decided to set my play on the 28 of December 1999, 3 days before the millennium. The location is New York City, using Time Square at the main concentration of the play, much like the woods. The Empire State Building will be the site where Rapunzels is keep by the which. It will be a room at the very top, which is unknown and inaccessible to anyone. The young couple will have to retrieve 4 things from the witch. One, the young boys white kangaroo, two the silver shoe from Cinderella, three, the beautiful long hair from Rapunsel and fourth, a beautiful mink coat from a little, young actress. The young black boy will find a port within an Inner City New York alley and discover his riches. The port takes the young boy to Japan in which he steals money and rare valuables from Japanese crime family. The family then returns to get their stolen goods and in the process kills people that get in their way. The witch will be meet in Central Park, and will appear as an old, wrinkled up lady who appears to be homeless and feeds the pigeons the entire day. Cinderella will be a beautiful girl in ragged clothes and she wants to make an appearance at a large party thrown by a movie star. She then is made up into a beautiful lady and pursued by the movie star of her dreams. They all end up wondering around Time Square searching for or running from their respective items or people. The millennium will be the time set by the witch for which the items must be retrieved by the young couple. If not retrieved by the deadline their wish will not be granted. The Characters will be dressed in present day clothing, Cinderella and the Young Actress girl with the mink coat will be dressed very stylish and with trend setting clothing. Except before Cinderellas wish is granted then she will be dressed in ragged handy downs from her sisters. The mood will be dark and along with the colors to give it a somewhat eerie feeling. The Japanese men will be dressed in Suites, and all have dark sunglasses on and only one will have a speaking line and be
Posted by Michael Hipple at 11:46 PM
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Even though that during the course of recent decades, the conceptual soundness of the Psychoanalytical Theory by Sigmund Freud has been increasingly criticized, on account of its presumed Ã¢â¬ËunscientificalnessÃ¢â¬â¢, there can only be a few doubts that it continues to denote a high practical value.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on North by Northwest is an Oedipal Wish Fulfillment Fantasy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More After all, even today it represents a thoroughly legitimate practice, on the part of movie critics, to refer to this specific theory, while striving to expose the innate reasons of why a particular character in the film tends to act in one way or another. In this paper, I will explore the validity of the above-statement at length, in regards to the films North by Northwest and Vertigo by Alfred Hitchcock, while promoting the idea that the manner in which main characters in both movies address life-challenges, reflect what happened to be the deep-seated Oedipal anxieties of the individuals in question. The actual mechanics of how men develop Oedipal anxieties have been revealed by Sigmund Freud in the rather straightforward manner, Ã¢â¬Å"The little man (a boy) wants to have his mother all to himself, that he feels the presence of his father as a nuisance, that he is resentful if his father indulges in any signs of affection towards his mother and that he shows satisfaction when his father has gone on a journey or is absentÃ¢â¬ (1977, p. 332). Because, during the course of their childhood men are rarely capable of opposing their fathers effectively, as they grow, they tend to extrapolate their unconscious frustration, in this respect, in the way they tackle life-challenges Ã¢â¬â especially while remaining in the relationship with women. As Pommier noted, Ã¢â¬Å"The repressed does not merely return, it acts out under a new identity. So-called adulthood is nothing ot her than this disowned childhood, indefinitely disowned through acts and thoughts. Adulthood is nothing but childhood, which materializes itself in this disavowalÃ¢â¬ (1997, p. 13). Hence, the currently adopted definition of the Oedipal complex, as the specific state of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, which is being concerned with the personÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency to project its consciously suppressed psychosexual anxieties, which are rooted in the memories of his childhood years, onto the surrounding social reality. There are sharply defined Oedipal overtones to the very plot of North by Northwest, as it is being concerned with exposing viewers to the consequential phases of the film main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s (Roger Thornhill) quest to discover the elusive identity of George Kaplan.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Throughout the course of this quest, Roger undergoes a specific psychological transfor mation from being a rather indecisive/easily intimidated individual into nothing short of a Ã¢â¬Ëmacho-manÃ¢â¬â¢, capable of opposing his violently minded adversaries on their terms. There is, of course, can be very little doubt that the earlier mentioned scenario is contextually consistent with what Freud used to refer to as the psychosexual stages of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s development, as an individual. The reason for this is quite apparent. In full accordance with how Freud used to perceive the process of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s psychosexual maturation, the process of Roger continuing to seek what he believed to account for his identity, resulted in the character realizing the fact that the visually observable indications of the personÃ¢â¬â¢s existence do not necessarily prove that such a person exists in reality. There are undeniable parallels between the discursive implications of RogerÃ¢â¬â¢s enlightenment, in this respect, and FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s assumption that it is only natural for intellec tually developing people to grow ever more aware of the illusionary subtleties of their sense of super-ego. There is a memorable scene in the film, where Roger tries out KaplanÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes (to figure whether they would match his size), only to realize that these clothes were meant to be worn by a much shorter/smaller man. This scene can be well interpreted, as such that signifies that the socially constructed framework for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of self-identity to able to attain Ã¢â¬ËindividuationÃ¢â¬â¢, cannot possibly contain the concerned individualÃ¢â¬â¢s subliminal and therefore valid identity-defining anxieties.Ã Nevertheless, it is only when we begin to deconstruct the discursive meaning of the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s actual themes and motifs in details that it becomes evident for us that North by Northwest is indeed a strongly Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢ movie. The first thing that comes insight, in this respect, is that it accentuates the Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢ aspects of the re lationship between Roger Thornhill and his mother, Clara. As it appears from the movie, this relationship can be best described as having been unnaturally strong Ã¢â¬â it is not only that Roger calls his mother multiple times a day, but also he takes close to heart her advice, as to how he should be positioning himself in life. This, of course, implies that the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s main character never ceased being emotionally attached to Clara, while trying to appease her in just about every way possible, and that this constituted one of his significant life-priorities. However, we can also deduce that, even though he did treat his mother with affection, Roger continued to experience the unconscious sense of shame/guilt, due to his self-presumed inability to prove himself a Ã¢â¬Ëreal manÃ¢â¬â¢ in her eyes. This could not be otherwise, because there are a plenty of scenes in the movie, which imply that it was a commonplace practice for Mrs. Thornhill to stress out her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s c ognitive infantilism in front of others, which in turn used to traumatize the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s main character emotionally.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on North by Northwest is an Oedipal Wish Fulfillment Fantasy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For example, there is another memorable scene in North by Northwest, where Clara is continuing to give his son disapproving looks, while the latter tries to convince people around that he has indeed been kidnapped. This scene alone suggests that deep in her mind; she regarded Roger nothing short of a Ã¢â¬Ëlittle boyÃ¢â¬â¢, who cannot help remaining utterly defenseless while facing reality (00.24.08). Consequently, this was causing Roger to grow increasingly doubtful of whether his rationale-driven identity of a responsible adult-male was perceptually adequate Ã¢â¬â hence, adding to the sheer intensity of the ensuing anxiety, on RogerÃ¢â¬â¢s part. The reason for thi s is that, just as Freud used to suggest, while unconsciously addressing their subliminal desire to have sex with their mothers, men do strive to affiliate themselves with masculine values, as if this would qualify them as their fathersÃ¢â¬â¢ legitimate replacements. Thus, ClaraÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency to humiliate Roger in front of others, which quite obviously lasted for several years, could not result in anything else but in having her sonÃ¢â¬â¢ feminizedÃ¢â¬â¢ to an extent. This explains why, for the duration of the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s first half an hour, Roger does not appear to be capable of assessing the possible implications of him having been kidnapped adequately. There is another motif in North by Northwest, which can be referred to as clearly Oedipal. It is being concerned with the physical appearance of Eva Marie Saint and the qualitative aspects of the relationship between her and Roger. First, this particular character is being represented in the movie as a Ã¢â¬Ëclassic bl ondÃ¢â¬â¢, with her facial features radiating the spirit of nobleness. We can well deduce that the reason why Roger became attracted to her, in the first place, is that he unconsciously perceived Eva as the physical embodiment of his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s existential virtues Ã¢â¬â even the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s last name invokes the notion of purity. After all, as psychologists are being aware of, men do tend to idealize their mothers to the extent of believing that they are in fact, asexual. However, the menÃ¢â¬â¢s earlier mentioned tendency has nothing to do with the workings of their unconscious id, while being, in essence, the part of the psychological defense mechanism, deployed by men in situations when they face cognitive dissonance.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hence, the symbolic significance of EvaÃ¢â¬â¢s presence in HitchcockÃ¢â¬â¢s film, as an extrapolation of RogerÃ¢â¬â¢s deep-seated anxiety to copulate with his mother Ã¢â¬â although he had this anxiety consciously suppressed, Roger was nevertheless driven by it, while pursuing the relationship with Eva. In essence, he regarded Eva as his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËsurrogateÃ¢â¬â¢. At the same time, however, Roger could not help experiencing the sensation of emotional discomfort, because of that, as the relationship in question never ceased being evocative of the notion of Ã¢â¬ËsinÃ¢â¬â¢. In its turn, this explains why the character of Eva can be well discussed in terms of a femme fatale Ã¢â¬â without wanting it, she nevertheless almost caused Roger to die, after having Ã¢â¬ËscheduledÃ¢â¬â¢ him to meet imaginary George Kaplan in the middle of an open field. Thus, just as it happened to be the case in noir films, the character of femme fatale Eva serves in North by No rthwest the function of intensifying the plotÃ¢â¬â¢s dramatics, as it does prompt male-viewers to get in close touch with their unconscious fears of incest. What has been said earlier, provides us with the discursive framework to elaborate upon what can be considered the Oedipal significance of the character of Vandamme in the movie. After all, there can be only a few doubts as to the fact that, as opposed to what it happened to be the case with Roger Thornhill, Vandamme is being represented as a violently minded, cynical and yet wickedly witty individual. Therefore, we can well speculate that, while competing to win the same woman (Eva) with Vandamm, which happened to emanate the Ã¢â¬ËsaintlyÃ¢â¬â¢ virtues of nobleness and wisdom, the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s main character was in all probability regarding his adversary in terms of an oppressive father. This explains why, up until the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s very end, Roger appeared having been incapable of opposing Vandamm effectively Ã¢â¬â q uite contrary to the fact that, just as his main nemeses, he could be described as an intelligent and physically strong man. The reason for this is that psychologically speaking, Roger did not only thought of Vandamme if terms of a male-competitor, but also in terms of a fatherly figure. Apparently, VandammeÃ¢â¬â¢s very presence used to prove utterly intimidating for the main character, as the latter tended to think that challenging Vandamme to a fair Ã¢â¬ËduelÃ¢â¬â¢ would violate an absolute taboo, within the context of how sons are supposed to refer to their fathers. According to Freud, one of the foremost Oedipal anxieties, on the part of men, which develops when they are aged 3-5 years old, is the fear of uncleanliness Ã¢â¬â while toilet-trained, the boys never cease being afraid of the prospect of failing to act like adults, in this respect. Therefore, it is fully explainable why being an Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢ movie, North by Northwest features some scenes in which Ro gerÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes become ever more soiled Ã¢â¬â hence, causing the main character to continue being submerged ever deeper in his Oedipal anxieties. The most memorable of these scenes is the one where Roger ends up being crop-dusted while hiding from an overflying plane in the open cornfield (01.14.09). As Morris noted, Ã¢â¬Å"In the crop-dusting sequence, Thornhill is driven into the ground and covered with a chemical agent, as if the quest for Ã¢â¬ËgroundsÃ¢â¬â¢ in North by Northwest resulted only in the further vulnerability and degradation of human identityÃ¢â¬ (1997, p. 50). Consequently, RogerÃ¢â¬â¢s suit becomes somewhat unrecognizable. In its turn, this explains why, after having met Eva for the second time, Roger does not talk to her angrily Ã¢â¬â despite the fact that Eva did set him up in the somewhat conniving manner. From the psychoanalytical point of view, this was because, after having been crop-dusted, Roger became endowed with the complex of sublimi nal guilt, due to his earlier first-hand encounter with Ã¢â¬ËfilthinessÃ¢â¬â¢. This, of course, substantially undermined the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of self-worth Ã¢â¬â hence, causing him to end up being out of words while facing his femme fatale.Ã One of the reasons why many grown individuals continue to be endowed with the Oedipal complex is that throughout their adult lives, they never had a chance to rationalize their sex-related unconscious anxieties. In its turn, this is the consequence of these peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s continual exposure to the oppressiveness of the currently dominant socio-cultural discourse, which deems even the mentioning of these anxietiesÃ¢â¬â¢ shamefulÃ¢â¬â¢. The validity of this statement can be illustrated in relation to another famous scene in North by Northwest, which symbolizes the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s unwillingness to allow its members to go about exploring their existential identities, in the way they consider the most appropriate. We refer to t he scene that features Roger and Eva climbing down the Ã¢â¬ËfacesÃ¢â¬â¢ of the Founding Fathers, carved into the Rushmore Mountain (02.12.00). The close analysis of this particular scene reveals that it was not included in the film for emphasizing the grotesque subtleties of Roger and EvaÃ¢â¬â¢s escape alone, but also to promote the idea that the socially upheld provisions of a conventional morality/ethics do prevent many people from being able to address their psychosexual anxieties. After all, the director made a deliberate point in having the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s emotionally charged climax unraveling in the foreground of absolutely unemotional stone-faces. Apparently, this was done to accentuate the central aspect of modern living Ã¢â¬â the fact that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s psychosexual drives, which in the end define the essence of the relationship between the representatives of opposite sexes and consequently Ã¢â¬â the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s very fabric, remain unacknowledged by morali stically minded policy-makers. Given the fact that, as it was pointed out earlier, RogerÃ¢â¬â¢s romantic involvement with Eva appears to be mainly Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢, it will only be appropriate, on our part, to think of the above mentioned scene as yet another indication that, when filming North by Northwest, Hitchcock remained thoroughly aware of the Psychoanalytical theoryÃ¢â¬â¢s main postulates. Another notable aspect of how men extrapolate their Oedipal anxieties is that, while pursuing the relationship with women, they strive to ensure the complete Ã¢â¬ËownershipÃ¢â¬â¢ of the latter. The origins of such menÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency can be traced to the time when they were young boys, who would try to do just about anything, in order to win their mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ uncompromised attention Ã¢â¬â even at the expense of putting their fathers in particular Ã¢â¬ËattentionalÃ¢â¬â¢ disadvantage. Therefore, grown-up Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢ men are dialectically predetermined to exhibit the signs that their unconscious psychosexual agenda is being concerned with objectualizing women in terms of a commodity Ã¢â¬â even when they do not quite realize it consciously. Hence, the discursive significance of the scene, in which Roger extends his hand to Eva, grabs her wrist, and says, Ã¢â¬Å"Come along Mrs. ThornhillÃ¢â¬ (02.15.58) Ã¢â¬â apparently, by having uttered these words, he attempted to do nothing less than taking an effective care of one of his major Oedipal anxieties, once and for all. This anxiety had to do with the fact that, during the course of his childhood, Roger convinced himself that it is specifically a man that successfully addresses the responsibilities of a hunter-gatherer (husband), which is being in a position to have sexual relations with his mother. Consequently, Roger associated the notion of Ã¢â¬ËhusbandÃ¢â¬â¢ with the notion of Ã¢â¬Ëbeing in chargeÃ¢â¬â¢, and the notion of Ã¢â¬Ëbeing in chargeÃ¢â¬â¢ with the menÃ¢ â¬â¢s presumed ability to keep their women subservient. Thus, it is indeed entirely appropriate referring to North by Northwest, as a film where the plotÃ¢â¬â¢s Oedipal themes and motifs accentuate the true significance of the on-screen action. The 1958 film Vertigo represents another example of how Hitchcock used to go about appealing to the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s deep-seated Oedipal anxieties. Its plot is concerned with the story about the former police detective (John Ã¢â¬Å"ScottieÃ¢â¬ Ferguson) striving to uncover the mystery of his friend wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s (Madeleine Elster) periodical transfigurations from a cheerful and intelligent contemporary into presumably a long-dead woman from the 19th century, obsessed with the thoughts of suicide. At the movieÃ¢â¬â¢s end, it is being revealed that the Ã¢â¬ËmysteryÃ¢â¬â¢ is question has in fact been staged and that Ã¢â¬ËMadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢ was Judy Barton Ã¢â¬â a woman that agreed to act as an accomplice in the murder of real M adeleine Elster.Ã One of the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s central Oedipal motifs is the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s condition of acrophobia (the fear of heights), which he developed in the aftermath of his partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s deadly fall from the roof, during the course of a police chase. The rationale behind this suggestion is quite apparent Ã¢â¬â because his newly acquired mental condition caused Scotty to feel existentially incapacitated and therefore Ã¢â¬ËeffeminateÃ¢â¬â¢ to an extent, we can well deduce that ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s unconsciousness regarded the earlier mentioned incident in terms of the act of Ã¢â¬ËcastrationÃ¢â¬â¢. Therefore, there is nothing too odd about the fact that, throughout the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s initial scene, Scotty is shown trying to regain his lost masculinity by the mean of attempting to climb up the steps of a stool, in order to prove his condition being manageable. This, however, turns out quite impossible for him. Eventually, ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s deep-seated realization o f its own inadequateness resulted in the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s main character deciding to follow Madeleine, just as his friend asks him to, in order to figure out what caused her to behave strangely. It is quite clear that, on an unconscious level, Scotty thought of such his decision as having potentially capable to help him to restore his former vision of himself, as a fully functional male. Nevertheless, it is specifically after we get to see the character of Madeleine for the first time, that the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s Oedipal undertones become quite apparent. After all, just as it was the case with the role of Eva in North by Northwest, Madeleine radiates the unmistakable aura of Ã¢â¬ËsainthoodÃ¢â¬â¢ around her. The gray-blond color of MadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢s hair adds to this impression rather substantially. The reason why Hitchcock decided to make Madeleine a blonde-haired person is no different from what used to be the rationale for Renaissance artists to represent the figures of female-saint s in their paintings in the similar manner. Apparently, men are naturally driven to associate the color of white with the notion of purity, which they in turn associate with the notion of motherhood. What makes the MadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance even more Oedipal, is that there is a certain unnaturalness to her Ã¢â¬ËblondnessÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â as if it came as a result of this character having dyed her hair with hydrogen peroxide. This provides us with an additional reason to believe that it were specifically the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s Oedipal anxieties, which caused him to become instantly attracted to her. While being exposed to the sight of this particular femme fatale, Scotty could not help experiencing the sensation of getting in close touch with what used to define his personality back in the past. In other words, it was not ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s attraction with Madeleine, as an individual, which initially prompted him to follow her, but his unconscious awareness of the fact that, despite having not seen Madeline, prior to their first encounter in the film, he nevertheless knew just about everything about her. We can only agree with Hinton, who suggested that, Ã¢â¬Å"While Scottie is looking at Madeleine, or who he believes to be Ã¢â¬ËMadeleine,Ã¢â¬â¢ he is looking for a ghost, or the truth about ghosts: that Ã¢â¬ËMadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ possession is all in her head, that she lacks a Ã¢â¬Ëhead,Ã¢â¬â¢ rationally speakingÃ¢â¬ (1994, p. 4). Without realizing it consciously, Scotty considered Madeleine as the embodiment of his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s womanly virtues. In its turn, this reveals the symbolical significance of the fact that, just as it can be seen in the film, while following Madeleine, Scotty was deriving a particular sensual pleasure out of this essentially voyeuristic process. Such ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency can be well discussed as having been reflective of his childhood memories. As Freud used to point out, even though they know perfectly well that their mothers will never choose them as sexual partners, young boys nevertheless cannot help experiencing a strong sensual attraction towards them. As a result, young boys never skip an opportunity to watch the process of their mothers being undressed, for example Ã¢â¬â even when it requires them to remain hidden in the room or to peek through the doorÃ¢â¬â¢s keyhole. Thus, there can be only a few doubts, as to the Oedipal roots of menÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency to indulge in voyeurism. What is means is that, as he proceeded to follow Madeleine in his car, Scotty was gradually beginning to think of this particular activity, on his part, as such that constituted the value of a Ã¢â¬Ëthing in itselfÃ¢â¬â¢. The validity of this suggestion can be illustrated, in regards to one of the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s memorable scenes, in which Scotty expresses its displeasure with Midge WoodÃ¢â¬â¢s (his female friend) attempt to win his romantic attention, by the mean of having herself depicted wearing the same old-fashioned dress, like the one that used to be worn by MadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢s grandmother Carlotta (01.01.46). Apparently, it never occurred to Midge that the reason why Scotty used to take an interest in listening to the stories about MadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢s grandmother had nothing to do with his mental fixation on the particulars of this womanÃ¢â¬â¢s physical appearance. Instead, it had to do with the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s subtle understanding that, while finding out more about Madeleine/her grandmother, he was regaining the long-lost part of his self-identity. The above-statement also helps to explain the persistence, with which Scotty went about dressing up Judy (who acted as Ã¢â¬ËMadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢, before the personÃ¢â¬â¢s presumed death, due to having fallen off the monasteryÃ¢â¬â¢s tower). Because of how he worked, in this respect, we can well assume that the relationship between Scotty and Madeleine was in fact Ã¢â¬ËunidirectionalÃ¢â¬â¢. That is, i t was not Madeleine in flesh in blood, who Scotty believed to be in love with, but rather this womanÃ¢â¬â¢s fetishized image, which in turn was nothing but the visually observable sublimation of the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s Oedipal longings. The assumption that in the HitchcockÃ¢â¬â¢s film Scotty acts as an individual endowed with the Oedipal complex also sheds light on the discursive significance of the scene in which he fails to prevent Ã¢â¬ËMadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢ from committing suicide, by the mean of jumping of the monasteryÃ¢â¬â¢s tower (00.52.28). This is because, according to the Freudian conceptualization of the concerned anxietyÃ¢â¬â¢s effects, Oedipal individuals experience two diametrically opposite desires Ã¢â¬â the desire to achieve a sexual satisfaction with the object of their psychosexual fixation, on the one hand, and the desire not to have information about this revealed to the morally oppressive society, on the other. In its turn, this can be explained by the fact that, while addressing life-challenges, people are being forced to observe the conventional code of behavioral ethics, adopted within the society Ã¢â¬â hence, allowing their super-ego to define the qualitative aspects of how they position themselves in life. However, as a result, people often develop some life-impending Ã¢â¬ËsecondaryÃ¢â¬â¢ anxieties, such as the fear of committing a Ã¢â¬ËsinÃ¢â¬â¢ and allowing the society to find out about it. Because the workings of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëarchetypical unconsciousnessÃ¢â¬â¢ inevitably cause them to believe that the sinÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate consequence is death, they cannot help acting in the manner that their super-ego prescribes them to Ã¢â¬â hence, the phenomenon of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s endowment with what Freud used to refer to as the Ã¢â¬Ëinstinct of deathÃ¢â¬â¢. What it means is that, on an unconscious level, Scotty was aware that his relationship with Madeleine was bound to end up in tragedy. This is the reason why, even though there were strongly ominous overtones to how Madeleine asked him to forget her in the scene where she was about to jump off the tower, Scotty did not move a finger to prevent Madeleine from realizing her suicidal intention before it was too late. This is even though he did not hesitate even for a second jumping in the water after Madeleine when she tried to kill herself the first time. Apparently, at this particular moment in the film, ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëinstinct of deathÃ¢â¬â¢, enforced upon him by his realization of the Ã¢â¬ËsinfulÃ¢â¬â¢ nature of his relationship with Madeleine, prevailed. After the incident, Scotty is shown dealing with acute depression. The sensation of depression, on his part, was so intense that the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s main character ended up undergoing psychiatric treatment in the clinic. In its turn, ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s depression was triggered by his sense of guilt, on account of his failure to save Madeleine. This once again confir ms the appropriateness of the suggestion that, throughout Vertigo, Scotty acts as an Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢ individual, in the classical sense of this word. After all, as we are well aware of, when trying to maintain the posture of the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s productive members, people have no other option but to suppress their Oedipal anxieties consciously, which cannot result in anything else but in creating prerequisites for these peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mental states to grow increasingly deteriorated. The processÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate consequence is depression. In ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s case, his depression appears to have been brought about by not as much the sensation of loss, on his part, but rather by his unconscious realization that, even while adult, he proved himself inadequate in the relationship with his Ã¢â¬Ësubliminal motherÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â Madeleine. As it was implied earlier, it is in the very nature of Oedipal men to idealize their mothers as Ã¢â¬ËsaintlyÃ¢â¬â¢ figures. Such their te ndency can be discussed in terms of a psychological defense mechanism Ã¢â¬â while suspecting that it is precisely their unworthiness, as thoroughly dependent individuals, which prevents them from being able to have a sexual intercourse with their mothers, young boys natural tend to refer to the objects of their latent sexual desires, as being somewhat Ã¢â¬ËunapproachableÃ¢â¬â¢. The reason for this is that it helps boys to reduce the strength of the anxiety of worthlessness, on their part. At the same time, however, it causes boys to think of women, in general, as something that they are not really in reality, which in turn is being capable of incapacitating these boys cognitively, by the time they reach adulthood. This helps us to explain the significance of the scene, in which Scotty drags Ã¢â¬ËMadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢/Judy to the top of the tower, as if his condition of acrophobia did no longer have any effect on him (02.07.04). Once, he realized the illusionary essence of his s elf-constructed image of Madeleine, as a Ã¢â¬ËsaintlyÃ¢â¬â¢ figure, ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s acrophobia evaporated into thin air, because it occurred to him that there was in fact nothing Ã¢â¬ËsinfulÃ¢â¬â¢ about his attraction to this woman, in the first place. Therefore, by dragging Judy up the staircase, Scotty wanted to confirm to himself once again that it is namely menÃ¢â¬â¢s possession of a penis, which defines the manner in which they pursue relationships with women Ã¢â¬â in ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, the monasteryÃ¢â¬â¢s tower became nothing short of a phallic symbol. In its turn, this allowed ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s id to escape the oppressive boundaries of his super-ego, which empowered the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s main character to an extent that he instantaneously forgot about his fear of heights. In other words, the concerned scene subtly suggests that it is only when men become aware of the fact that they themselves contribute to the sensation of having been Ã¢â¬ËcastratedÃ¢â¬â¢, in the allegorical sense of this word, by the mean of adopting a rather uncritical view of women, that they may cease being Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢. In this respect, the earlier mentioned message, read between the sceneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËlinesÃ¢â¬â¢, appears entirely consistent with how the Theory of Psychoanalysis addresses the issue of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s endowment with the Oedipal complex. After all, according to this theory, the pathways towards the reestablishment of emotional equilibrium, inside the Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢ individualÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, cannot be discussed outside of the concerned personÃ¢â¬â¢s willingness to recognize the counter-beneficiary effects of how his super-ego assess the surrounding psychosexual reality. I believe that the earlier deployed line of argumentation, in defense of the suggestion that there are indeed some clearly Oedipal overtones in the films North by Northwest and Vertigo, is entirely consistent with the paperÃ¢â¬â¢s initial thesis. It is under stood, of course, that many insights, contained in this paper, are somewhat speculative. This, however, does not undermine these insightsÃ¢â¬â¢ overall legitimacy, because even today it remains a commonplace practice, among psychoanalysts, to go about identifying the suspected psychopathology in a person, by the mean of exposing the objectiveness of his or her subliminal anxieties. In this respect, we did not act any differently. Thus, it will only be appropriate, on our part, to conclude this paper by reinstating once again that the films North by Northwest and Vertigo by Alfred Hitchcock do contain clues as to both: what causes people to become Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢ and what they can do, in order to have the acuteness of their Oedipal anxieties substantially reduced. References Freud, Z 1977, Introductory lectures on Psychoanalysis, New York, Norton. Hinton, L 1994, Ã¢â¬ËA Ã¢â¬Å"womanÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ view: the Vertigo frame-upÃ¢â¬â¢, Film Criticism, vol. 19. no. 2, pp. 2-2 2. Morris, C 1997, Ã¢â¬ËThe direction of Ã¢â¬Å"North by NorthwestÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢, Cinema Journal, vol. 36. no. 4, pp. 43-56 North by Northwest, 1959. Film. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. USA: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Pommier, G 1997, Ã¢â¬ËThe psychoanalytic concept of childhoodÃ¢â¬â¢, Critical Quarterly, vol. 39. No. 3, pp. 8-15. Vertigo, 1958. Film. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. USA: Paramount Pictures. This essay on North by Northwest is an Oedipal Wish Fulfillment Fantasy was written and submitted by user Allan Powers to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
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Sunday, November 24, 2019
President James Madison Fast Facts James Madison (1751-1836) was Americas shortest president standing at only 54. He was very important in the founding of America. He was one of the three authors, including Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, of the Federalist papers which helped persuade states to ratify the Constitution. He was also the Father of the Constitution in that he was influential in its construction and terms.Ã This article provides a list of fast facts for James Madison. For more in depth information, you can also read the James Madison Biography. Birth: March 16, 1751 Death: June 28, 1836 Term of Office: March 4, 1809-March 3, 1817 Number of Terms Elected: 2 Terms First Lady: Dolley Payne Todd Nickname: Father of the Constitution James Madison Quote: Every word [of the Constitution] decides a question between power and liberty. Major Events While in Office: Non-Intercourse Act (1809-1810)War of 1812 (1812)Star Spangled Banner written by Francis Scott Key (1814)Treaty of Ghent (1814)Battle of New Orleans (1814)Hartford Convention (1814-1815)Second Bank of the United States Chartered (1816) States Entering Union While in Office: Louisiana (1812)Indiana (1816) Related James Madison Resources: These additional resources on James Madison can provide you with further information about the president and his times. James Madison BiographyTake a more in depth look at the fourth president of the United States through this biography. Youll learn about his childhood, family, early career, and the major events of his administration. War of 1812 ResourcesThe fledgling United States needed to flex its muscle one more time to convince Great Britain it was truly independent. Read about the people, places, battles, and events that proved to the world America was here to stay. War of 1812 TimelineThis timeline focuses on the events of the War of 1812. US Constitution FactsJames Madison was responsible for drafting much of the US Constitution. Here is an overview of major facts, and key points about this pivotal document. Revolutionary WarThe debate over the Revolutionary War as a true revolution will not be resolved. However, without this struggle America might still be part of the British Empire. Find out about the people, places, and events that shaped the revolution. Chart of Presidents and Vice PresidentsThis informative chart gives quick reference information on the Presidents, Vice-Presidents, their terms of office, and their political parties. Other Presidential Fast Facts: Thomas JeffersonJames MonroeList of American Presidents
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Thursday, November 21, 2019
Preparing for and Taking Standardized Tests - Research Paper Example Students can have access to a wide array of practice tests before actually appearing in the test. In the past, students had to go to academies in addition to their regular schools in order to prepare for the tests. Adjusting this extra work in an already busy schedule was quite of a challenge for many hard working students. Academies consumed a lot of their time as a result of which, students lagged behind in their regular home work. Even then, the quality of education would not be up to the mark because most of the energy was consumed in adjusting new activities into the schedule and then adjusting with it. In addition to that, academies popular for their history of good results used to charge the willing students quite a lot of fees which many students could not afford. Today, students can have free access to past tests, sample papers, preparing tips and test taking strategies. Internet makes a holistic approach to enhance the abilities of students from all aspects so that they bec ome adequately equipped with the required skills before appearing in the exam. This not only saves studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ time, but also enables them to have quick access to the required information. The best thing about preparing for the standardized tests from the internet is that after going through the sample tests, a student gains a preliminary idea of the areas in which he/she is weak. This helps the student place particular emphasis upon the skill enhancement in that particular area. Many online test preparation sites recommend students to go through the sample tests once before the commencement of preparation, and the second time, after they think they have prepared sufficiently. The second test is no less useful than the first one because it provides the students with an insight into their skills and the extent to which they are really prepared for the standardized test next day. In the past, children liked going to academies not just for preparation, but also with a view to lear ning strategies and tips that would help them gain maximum marks in the minimal time. Today, the same purpose is served by internet. In fact, internet provides students with a much greater variety of strategies and tips all of which have been derived from the experience of past test takers. Although preparation of the standardized tests depends to much an extent, upon the individualistic preparation of a student, though teachers also have a special role to play in it. In order to ensure that all students are able to pass the standardized tests, it is imperative that teachers take out time from the regular classes to get the students prepared for the tests. According to Hollingworth (2007 cited in Tompkins, 2011) teachers can achieve this without compromising upon the regular instructional program in five ways discussed below: 1. Teachers should make sure that the curriculum standards imposed by their state are consistent with their program and adjust the material according to the re quirements of the test. 2. Teachers should establish milestones with students and should regularly supervise their progress through informal assessments. 3. Teachers should involve students in authentic activities of literacy in order to make them potential writers and readers. 4. Teachers should narrate the testÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose to the students and discuss the way the results will impact their future, but should not increase the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢
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